Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Spondias Purpurea Linn (Anacardiaceae): In Wistar Rats


Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Spondias Purpurea Linn (Anacardiaceae): In Wistar Rats

Ibrahim Abdullahi Abubakar 1*, Helen Kwanashie Ochuko 2, Sherifat Anafi Bola 1, Mohammed Mahdi Abubakar 3, Jonah Omonofa Oluwaiye1

  1. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  2. Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences
    National Open University of Nigeria, Headquarters; Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT)
    Nigeria.
  3. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Gombe State University, Gombe State.

 
 

Keywords; Spondias purpurea, haematological parameters, biochemical parameters, histopathology, toxicity

 

 

 

 

*Corresponding author: abbaningi@yahoo.com;

DOI: https://doi.org/10.61594/tnpr.v5i1.2024.102

Page No: 16-34
Volume:5, Issue 1, 2024
Trends in Natural Products Research
Copy Right: NAPREG

           Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the toxicological profile of aqueous fruit extract of Spondias purpurea (AFES) in Wistar rats. The AFES was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies which were conducted using standard methods. Sub-chronic (90 days) toxicity studies were carried out on four (4) groups. The first group received distilled water (1 ml/kg). Groups 2, 3 and 4 received AFES (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg respectively). The effect of the extract on body weight, relative organ weights, haematological and biochemical (kidney function, liver function and lipid profile) parameters as well as histopathological studies of the organs (liver, kidney, lungs, brain, heart, stomach and testes) was investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, triterpenes, steroids and tannins. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) was greater than 5,000 mg/kg. Sub-chronic administration of AFES did not produce significant (p > 0.05) changes in body weights, relative organ weights, haematological and biochemical parameters of treated rats. However, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in urea at 250 mg/kg, a decrease in sodium ion at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner and decrease in chloride ion as well as decrease in triglycerides at 1,000 mg/kg treatment groups. Histopathology investigation revealed some levels of damage to the organs; liver, kidney, testis, lung and heart of the extract treated animals. These findings suggest that aqueous fruit extract of S. purpurea is relatively safe on acute administration. However, sub-chronic administration could result in mild toxic effects.